RB 65

limited by the empirical material itself.Accordingly, if one investigates effects, then induction cannot help the scientist to establish the existence of causes. Consequently, any inference as to the causes of any given phenomena based upon the observations of effects transcends the observed material and is thus formally speaking incorrect.Therefore, his description of induction agrees with Aristotle’s description of scientific method in respect of what induction establishes, namely “general principles”, but disagrees in respect of, on one the hand, the reach of the inductive inferences themselves, and, on the other, in respect of the immutable permanence of the inductively established premisses gained through induction. Hägerström’s analysis of Aristotle’s theory of knowledge constitutes an early example of Hägerström’s program of conceptual analysis, which incidentally also has the benefit that this analysis of Aristotle’s ethics quite accurately describes the classical metaphysical standpoint of epistemology as well as the consequences that an inadequate conceptual analysis, in this case Aristotle’s, brings about. Due to the fact that the specific problems that Aristotle faced and those faced by latter-day metaphysics (subjectivism), are similar, an analysis of Aristotle makes a natural point of departure for a deeper analysis of Hägerström’s theory of science.239 Furthermore, Hägerström’s doctoral thesis, Aristoteles etiska grundtankar och deras teoretiska förutsättningar (1893),240 shows that Hägerström from the outset of his career was aware of the problems connected to the metaphysical standpoint (subjectivism), a ca l l f o r s c i e n t i f i c p u r i t y 113 4 . 1. 1 häge r ström’s analys i s of the ari stote l ian theory of knowledge 239 A further reason to start out with Aristotle is perhaps given by Ernst Cassirer (18741945) who observes that Hägerström is one of few modern philosophers who have taken to heart to dicuss the issue of universals. In fact Cassirer construes Hägerström’s entire concept of reality, in both practical and theoretical philosophy, as an aspect of this issue. Cassirer, Hägerström, pp. 46 and 102. 240 English:The Theoretical Basis to the Fundamentals of Aristotle’s Ethics.