RB 65

even if it took him fifteen years to fully free himself from subjectivism. Finally, his description of Aristotle’s problems of mastering the difference between formal and material knowledge, as demonstrated in Aristotle’s theory of induction,proves that Hägerström did not and could not have embraced a theory of induction postulating the possibility of synthetic knowledge a priori. If anything,one could argue that Hägerström’s analysis of Aristotle shows that the metaphysical point of view is contradictory. In his analysis of Aristotle’s ethics,241 Hägerström pointed to the difficulties associated with Aristotle’s theory of epistemology and the consequences that these difficulties entailed for the inductive method.According to Hägerström, if we take Aristotle’s attempt to solve the aporiai that appear when reality is considered from different perspectives as our point of departure, it is a contradictory theory of knowledge.242 The problem of Aristotle’s epistemology is that which concerns the exact relationship between particulars and universals in the cognitive process.243 To Aristotle real knowledge, conceptual knowledge (Swedish: begreppskunskap), constitutes a qualified form of knowledge having the universal as its object, but not that which is particular.As a consequence thereof,Aristotle argues that there is a gradual difference between empirical knowledge and conceptual knowledge, of which the former gradually leads to the latter.Therefore, Hägerström’ concludes that it is imperative for Aristotle to move from knowledge attained via the senses, to knowledge attained via reason, insights.244 Accordingly, in order to reach the higher hierarchies of knowledge Aristotle prescribes that one must use induction, and go from perceptions, via memories (lasting perceptions), over experiences (repeated memories), to the craftsman’s skill, and finally the scientist’s knowledge.245 p a r t i 1 , c h a p t e r 4 114 241 Ibid. 242 Ibid., pp. 3-5, 37 and 55-56. 243 Ibid., p. 56. 244 Ibid., pp. 58-61; Aristotle, TheWorks of Aristotle,Analytica Prioria I 30 (46b 3-30). 245 Aristotle, TheWorks of Aristotle,Analytica Posteriora II. 19 (100a 1-8).