RB 65

In addition to Aristotle’s distinction between “Induction” and “Reasoning”modern philosophy also distinguishes between two types of induction, which in epistemological aspects share one common methodological characteristic, namely the passage from particulars to universals, but that on the other hand have different characteristics when it comes to the certainty of the inductive inference itself. First, there is enumerative induction, a nondemonstrative form of reasoning, based upon the enumeration of empirical instances (particulars) from which a general conclusion is drawn. Second, there is mathematical or recursive induction, which is a demonstrative form of reasoning based upon a system of logically defined members, as for example with integers in mathematical philosophy, from which an indefinite amount of apodictically certain conclusions can be drawn and hence a universally valid rule can be established, such as the rule of mathematical induction, n +1. The question with regard to Hägerström’s philosophy should thus be this:Which of these two types of induction does Hägerström refer to when he discusses induction? A general survey of his works indicates that as a rule he refers to enumerative induction when discussing induction. Hägerström’s own opinion on the nature and reach of induction is less far-reaching thanAristotle’s.According to Hägerström, induction is a process through which one established general propositions from which one in turn could make deductions. However, this does not mean that induction constitutes the highroad to knowledge about the real causes, as induction only helps lay determine regularities, but not (metaphysical) powers.238 Hägerström’s opinion is that induction is a scientific method that is p a r t i 1 , c h a p t e r 4 112 4 . 1 häge r ström’s analys i s 238 Hägerström, “Vergleich zwischen den Kraftvorestellungen der Primitive und der modernen Kulturvölker. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur der Psychologie der Magie,” in Festschrift zum70. Geburtstag Prof. Emer.A. Grotenfelt zueeignet, pp. 71-72.