RB 65

identical or non-contradictory. Once something is self-identical, it is real. Hägerström thus avoids the mistake of identifying the real with the existing, reality with existence.These two concepts, however, do correspond in a specific manner, insofar as if, a thing exists, then it is real,while conversely if a thing is real, then it may exist. This distinction between reality and existence may explain why Hägerström has variously been designated as being a rationalist, idealist, and a materialist.What is wrong with these categorizations of his philosophy is that they refer to a misunderstanding of his supposition of the necessary relationship between conceptual reality and logical determination. Existence is, as is demonstrated, a narrower concept than reality; existence necessarily corresponds to objective reality (subject independence) while reality need not correspond to anything else than subjective reality - subject dependence. Existing objects are objects that are both self-identical and subject independent.Real objects are those objects that are non-contradictory, and at least subject independent. Thus, Hägerström rejects the idea that whatever is formally real, that is lacks contradictions, has a higher degree of reality than have existing things.Accordingly, Hägerström’s philosophy does not construe factual existence as a disqualifying attribute with regard to reality; on the contrary, existence is a necessary affirmation of reality. In conclusion, objective reality is existence, and subjective reality is determinateness. The difference between “self-identity” and “determinateness” in Das Prinzip derWissenschaft and Selbstdarstellungen respectively are centered on the fact that inDas Prinzip derWissenschaft the concept “determinateness” differentiates between individual objects on the basis of pre-existent specific inner relationships between the individualobjects, relationships that thus must be (pre)determined a ca l l f o r s c i e n t i f i c p u r i t y 99 3. 3. 6 e s sent ial metaphys ics in “das prinz i p de r wi s senschaft”