between subject and object that is objective.124 It is in this dual meaning that we must understand Hägerström’s use of the term objective. On the one hand, the term must be understood in the sense of object-related, while on the other, it must be understood in the sense of being logically valid - that is objectively right. In addition, both meanings of the term objective relate to Hägerström’s understanding of the conceptual twins real and reality - concepts that he also uses in the analogous sense of existence and self-identical (non-contradictory). To Hägerström, it is when these terms are used indiscriminately and irrespective of function that confusion arises, not only in the area of epistemology but also in the area of ontology.125 The effect of a formal view of synthetic cognition and Hägerström’s material view, are for the scientist concerned with formal categories and relations, far-reaching.According to Hägerström’s standpoint, any hypothesis must be empirically validated for it to be accepted as a verified hypothesis, a theory,which entails an unconditional demand for external verification - objectivity - which is a demand that must be maintained regardless of the internal logical consistency of the hypothesis.Material truth calls for verification in addition to validity, while formal validity calls only for validation.On the other hand,we have the Kantian standpoint, according to which deductive validation of a hypothesis is sufficient for validation of the ensuing theory.With Kant the demand for empirical verification is degraded from the level of a theoretical necessity down to the level of a mere practical convenience, according to which facts may be adduced, if deemed convenient, in support of a logically valid theory. According to a Hägerströmian interpretation, the value of Copernicus’ discovery (see above), is that it gave a far more consistent explanation of astronomical observations than did the Ptolemaic system.The rational reconstruction of the facts, regardless of the p a r t i 1 , c h a p t e r 2 74 124 Hägerström, Selbstdarstellungen, pp. 5-9. 125 See ibid., passim.