RB 65

doors for a theory of universals based solely upon objective or subjective components nor any absolute synthetic concepts. For Hägerström:“… knowledge is only a non-contradictory apprehension of something as real or as determinate”.386Therefore his epistemology must be understood as being an attempt to combine object and subject in a logically consistent judgment. Hägerström holds the opinion that the problems of epistemological idealism and realism are only possible to solve if the investigations of the nature of the judgment and the investigation of reality as such are conducted separately.387 If this distinction fails to be upheld, then any of the labels “materialist”,388 “rationalist”,389 or “metaphysician” will follow naturally.390 For in such case, each and every label is the result of an analysis performed on the basis of epistemological premisses that are untenable, on account of the fact that such premisses contain innate contradictions that stem from an analysis of Hägerström’s philosophy without having regard to the distinction between epistemology and ontology. Though Hägerström’s philosophy is materialistic to a certain extent,391 it not so anymore than any other non-metaphysical empirical system of philosophy. It is therefore erroneous to label Hägerström’s philosophy as being some form of metaphysical materialism or rationalism in epistemology and ontology. Concepts do not exist independently of the mind, according to Hägerström’s philosophy a concept must be present in the mind as an idea in order to: a) have a determinable truth value that is p a r t i 1 , c h a p t e r 7 164 386 Hägerström, “Hägerström,” p. 90; “The Philosophy of Axel Hägerström,” p. 315. Swedish: “… kunskap är blott motsägelselös uppfattning av något som realt eller motsägelselöst.” 387 Hägerström, Selbstdarstellungen, p. 7. 388 Helin, Lainoppi, p. 432. 389 Silverbark, Fysikens filosofi, p. 392. 390 Bjarup, Reason, p. 189. 391 Marc-Wogau, Studier till Axel Hägerströms filosofi, p. 120. 7. 4 conce pts and corre spondence betwe en subj ect and obj ect