RB 65

Ontologically speaking, Hägerström’s concepts have subjective reality, but not objective reality.71They are real, but not objectively existent. To have subjective reality means that something, a thought, a concept, a fantasy, a dream, or a hallucination is the content of a psychic act, while objective reality entails being an object that not only exists but also is a part of a psychic act.To have objective reality means that an object that exists independently of any subjective consciousness (of that same object). In short, subjective reality means that an object is only indirectly attributable to the physical world.The subjectively real object is an object that can only be placed in spatio-temporal reality via an agent - a thinking subject of some kind.To have objective reality means that the object is directly attributable to the physical world, without having to pass through a subject’s mental acts - that is, a subject’s consciousness.72 Hägerström’s realistic theory of universals differs from scholastic (realistic) theories of universals on account of the fact that he only advances the idea that concepts may have reality by virtue of being determinate and thus non-contradictory ideas, in other words that reality is also a formal category, but Hägerström’s ideas do not include that concepts exist independently of the mind and objects (which scholasticism claims). His realistic theory thus distinguishes between formal reality (non-contradiction) and existence (self-identity).To exist in the usual sense of the word demands substantially more than to be real. Furthermore, his concepts are not subject to reification, for they are neither assumed nor held to exist alongside the sensible objects.73 The concepts seem to exist in the objects or to be found among them.74 As far as Hägerström sees it, concepts only have a logical meaning, not a sensible or sensory meaning per se. Concepts may, however, p a r t i i i , c h a p t e r 2 192 71 Petersson, Värdeteori, pp. 22-25. See also Hägerström, Selbstdarstellungen, pp. 15-17. 72 Cf. Hägerström,“B. o. F.,” pp. 52, 98-99; Marc-Wogau, Studier till Axel Hägerströms filosofi, pp. 85-133; Petersson, Värdeteori, pp. 19, 22-23, 27, 38, and 53. 73 Hägerström, “B. o. F.,” pp. 85-86. 74 Ibid., p. 82.