RB 65

modern empirical science,40 can be answered in the following manner:To themodern scientist philosophy has aregulative function, as it determines the formal validity of scientific conclusions by spelling out the formal conditions for proper scientific argumentation. It is only in this respect that philosophy can contribute anything of material value to empirical science. In all other cases, the Botanist is right and the adage to which philosophy should adhere to is: ‘Hands off!’41 To the Philosopher it is the introduction of the law of causality that is problematic for empirical science.The reason is that this law can neither be founded nor established on any empirical material.The law of causality itself is in fact based upon the assumption of its own future validity, a fact that can neither be observed nor established by any empirical means, nor for that matter be established inductively.42 Furthermore, even if the law of causality serves the function of a working hypothesis, the law by itself cannot prove its own validity, which would indicate that the proof itself rests upon the law of causality. So from this perspective, the assumption of empirical science that the law of causality lays the foundation to the validity of empirical sciences is based upon a circulus vitiosus, undermining the validity of the law of causality as well as the validity of empirical sciences in general.43 The problem concerning the principles guiding empirical science, according to the Philosopher, is that empirical science itself lacks further empirical as well as other objective reasons to believe in its own predictions.44 This problem is caused by the a ca l l f o r s c i e n t i f i c p u r i t y 181 2 . 3 the law of causal i ty: the unemp i rical foundat ion of emp i rical sci ence 40 Ibid., p. 39. 41 Hägerström, “Declaration of Intention,” p. 299. Swedish: “Bort med fingrarna!” Hägerström, “Begreppet viljeförklaring,” p. 99. Cf. Hägerström, “B. o. F.,” p. 39. 42 Hägerström, “B. o. F.,” pp. 22-26. 43 Ibid., pp. 26-29. 44 Ibid., pp. 28-29.