RB 65

ding to it (denotation), as has been done in metaphysics. If one defines reality from an epistemological standpoint all aspects of reality (universals and particulars) become equally real and united into one single and exclusive context. In this case, reality as such is not the main goal of science, the main goal is the determination of secure knowledge rather than the definition of things proper. Provided that this is the case, then the problem of the universals is “degraded” to a problem of logic, a problem that can be solved by communicable principles accessible to the mind, that is the laws of logic, rather than manifestly incommunicable and inaccessible principles of reality per se. Hägerström concludes: It is logically impossible for metaphysical philosophy to overcome the epistemological problems caused by its own innate contradictions. Metaphysical knowledge can never exist in a non-contradictory relationship with physical reality (an inability caused by the fact that objective metaphysical knowledge is considered to be nothing more than a true representation of the thing in itself, which is a concept that is only cognizable by means of transcendent induction).Truly objective object-knowledge lacking any subjective content could only be reached by way of a contradiction manifesting itself through the choice of method. Therefore, while theoretically denying the need of empirical facts in the quest for essential knowledge, metaphysical philosophy in reality never dispenses with a predominantly empirical (or positivistic) point of departure.At the same time, metaphysical science cannot guarantee that its own results, which shall express essential qualities, really correspond to empirical research and the investigated object. Accordingly, the metaphysicians had failed to demonstrate that it is possible to execute synthetic induction which holds a priori, which is apodictically certain just as logic and mathematics.352 The philosophical conclusion concerning empirical propositions thus contain elements that are not included in the premisses, as the conp a r t i 1 , c h a p t e r 6 154 352 Cf. Kant, Cr. P. R., pp. B vii-xxxv.